It is, however, only in the last few years that the waste issue has moved up on the. Solid waste management 10cv757 dept of civil engg, sjbit page 8 unit 3 1. Dec 03, 2014 solid wastes are complex, multiphase mixtures. Lack of waste collection vehicles, or their inefficient utilization and unauthorized use 4. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and rag pickers being the most vulnerable 4. Solid wastes controlling methods biology discussion. In the waste management process, the wastes are collected from the different sources and are disposed of. Solid waste management pdf notes swm pdf notes smartzworld. The wastes generated from the natural processes and anthropogenic activities which pollute the environment and make the earth an unhealthy planet, is termed as environmental wastes, depending upon the physical states of wastes, these are of three types. The chain begins with the generation of waste by individual households, institutions and workplaces. Solid waste management is a polite term for garbage management. Waste disposal methods were still very crude, however.
With your download, get the 19 best papers relevant to this one, including 19 top related papers. The waste types are governed by various rules laid down by the ministry of environment, forest and climate change, government of india. This process includes transportation, analysis, legal procedures, along with monitoring and enforcing regulations. Modern techniques of solid waste management in india. But, care should be taken not to create air pollution due to burning of solid waste. The following two processes are adopted to reduce solid waste by burning but not creating air pollution. Waste minimisation and recyclingreuse policies have been introduced to reduce the amount of waste generated, and increasingly, alternative waste management practices to solid waste disposal on land have been implemented to reduce the environmental impacts of waste management. Where present, manual street sweeping by municipal. Mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste. However, comparison of these technologies at the very high destruction levels they achieve is difficult. Solid waste management types with methods and its effects. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. The under fire air is blown through the holes in the drawings show three types grates. Strategy for environmental, solid waste management, public health and related areas discuss.
Section c was aimed at assessing their attitude towards waste management. Thus, as one single unit, it encompasses right from the collection, disposal, recycling, to which the processes of monitoring and regulation, respectively belong to, along with the legal frameworks that enable the occurrence of waste management. A study was conducted to assess the extent of community participation in solid waste management swm in mbeya city, tanzania. Those groups include source reduction and reuse, animal feeding, recycling, composting, fermentation, landfills, incineration and land application. Garbage collected in philadelphia, for example, was simply dumped into the delaware river downstream from the city. So the disposal of municipal solid waste is a one of the central part of solid waste propriate solid waste dumping site one of the challenging problems in developing countries due to the lack of. Introduction of solid waste management linkedin slideshare. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the. Not much attention is paid to management of solid wastes in most parts of the world, particularly in the context of developing countries.
As shown in the diagram above, solid waste management generally includes a collection of waste, transporting waste, processing and recycling it, and. Hazardous solid waste is industry generated which need special disposal techniques. Solid waste disposal and management is a critical aspect of environmental hygiene and it needs to be incorporated into environmental planning. Pdf questionnaire for solid waste management survey. Urban planning and city management is a very debatable topic and are kind of ignored ones. Zero waste is a latest visionar y concept for confounding w aste problems of our society. To support municipal solid waste msw characterization efforts, epa conducted a scoping study on food waste and the methods by which they are managed. The term waste management collectively means the management of waste from its inception to the final stage of disposal. The combined effects of population explosion and changing modern living standard have had a cumulative effect in the generation of a. The waste hierarchy is the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. Separation and processing of solid waste components. Environmental and health impact of solid waste disposal in. Pdf en6501 municipal solid waste management mswm books. People from all across the country migrate to the city in modern techniques of solid waste management in india.
Chang and wei 1999, macdonald 1996b, morris 1991 and smith and baetz 1991 developed models that included recycling and other waste management methods for the planning of municipal solid waste management. Ebonyi state, environment, municipal solid waste, waste management 1. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials. Landfill technique,types of landfill,landfills for commingled msw,landfills for shredded solid wastes,landfills for individual waste constituents,landfilling methods,excavated celltrench method, landfill siting considerations, haul distance, location restrictions, climatologic conditions, surface water hydrology, local environmental conditions. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. Data were collected using both structured and nonstructured interviews. This method involves feeding organic materials into a drum, silo, concretelined trench, or similar equipment. Advantages and disadvantages of waste management wisestep. Lifecyclebased integrated solid waste management based on lifecycle assessment of a product from its production and consumption point of view. Solid waste disposal and management is a critical aspect of. An introduction to solid waste management and the environment humans have always produced trash and have always disposed of it in some way, so solid waste management is not a new issue. This paper deals with the solid waste management methods and practices in india. Solid waste management the government of india, ministry of environment and forests has framed municipal solid waste management and handling rules 2000 and notified the same in september, 2000 making it mandatory fro all the municipal authorities in the country and those responsible for managing the municipal solid waste in the country.
The ultimate goals of the best practices are to achieve equitable delivery of solid waste management, ensure urban cleanliness and lower negative environmental and health impacts. The contaminants with the solid waste and leachate from solid waste, pollute water bodies. The term solid waste management mainly refers to the complete process of collecting, treating and disposing of the solid wastes. Chapter 7 solid waste management water engineering. Solid waste can create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately. Municipal solid waste management plays an important ro le in sustainable development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of solid wastes, determination of composition is not easy. Study session 9 storage, collection, transfer and transport of solid waste introduction. Therefore the society appeals to solid waste management which brings aspects respecting the optimisation of material. The water, air and physical environment have been affected due to bad management of solid waste. Statistical procedures are difficult and usually procedures based on random sampling techniques are used to determine composition.
The term municipal solid waste msw is generally used to describe most of the nonhazardous solid waste from a city, town or village that requires routine collection and transport to a processing or disposal site, sources of msw include private homes, commercial establishments and institutions, as well as industrial facilities. In nigeria, the problem of municipal solid waste disposal has been a persistent. Solid waste comprise countless different materials. Guides for municipal solid waste management in pacific countries. Materials and methods the household solid waste management swm problem was observed and recorded during a reconnaissance visit of residential estates in eldoret. The municipalitys solid waste management processes are not linked anyhow to the residents. Littering of solid waste should prohibited in cities towns and urban areas. Inefficient waste disposal systems lead to environmental pollution along with presenting severe health hazards. Solid waste msw includes all types of solid waste generated by households and. More over house to house collecting solid waste should be.
Hence, solid waste management reduces or controls the solid waste pollution and its hazardous effects. Cities are considered as the driver of economic development and growth. Oct 11, 2019 solid waste management is defined as the discipline associated with control of generation, storage, collection, transport or transfer, processing and disposal of solid waste materials in a way that best addresses the range of public health, conservation, economic, aesthetic, engineering, and other environmental considerations. In general this does not include excreta, although sometimes nappies and the faeces of young children may be mixed with solid waste. A technological approach to solid waste management began to develop in the latter part of the 19th century. Solid waste generation at the point source should be restricted by created by public awareness. The waste may be defined as material for which no use or reuse is intended. National solid waste management status report the department, in coordination with the doh and other concerned agencies, shall within six 6 months after the effectivity of this act, prepare a national solid waste management status report which shall be used as a basis in formulating the national solid waste management framework provided in. Here you can download the free lecture notes of solid waste management pdf notes swm pdf notes materials with multiple file links to download. Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal. Waste or wastes are unwanted or unusable materials.
En6501 municipal solid waste management mswm syllabus unit i sources and types sources and types of municipal solid wastes waste generation ratesfactors affecting generation, characteristicsmethods of sampling and characterization. Solid waste disposal management is usually referred to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes. Thus, the priority of a waste management system 9 must always be the provision of a cleansing service which helps to maintain the. This is stage 1, which you learned about in study session 7.
There are eight major groups of waste management methods, each of them divided into numerous categories. The endoflife sustainable food management sfm techniques presented in this scoping study include practices currently used as well as emerging technologies. Invessel composting can process large amounts of waste without taking up as much space as the windrow method and it can accommodate virtually any type of organic waste e. However, waste can be categorized based on materials such as paper, plastic, glass, metal and organic waste. Integrated municipal solid waste management system imswms. Management and disposal of municipal solid wastes in. Assessment of community participation in solid waste management.
Where large quantities of dry waste are stored in hot climates this may create. In order to manage waste, the environmental protection agency epa and the solid waste act favor an integrated solid waste management strategy that includes 1 reducing the amount of solid waste generated, 2 recycling as much refuse as. Municipal solid waste management solid waste management swm is far from a new phenomenon in india. Key application areas this documentation targets the limitations and challenges of con. Solid waste management challenges in urban areas of ghana. Solid waste can create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and. To introduce the reader to the solid waste management field, an overview of municipal solid waste problems, sources, collection, resource recovery, and disposal methods are presented in this paper. Collection of solid waste university of asia pacific.
The solution is the integrated municipal solid waste management system imswms. Solid waste management can be thought of as a chain of linked stages, as shown in figure 9. What has changed are the types and amounts of waste produced, the methods of disposal, and the human values and perceptions of what should be done with it. On october 7, 2011, in solid waste management, by jitendra how one is to go about waste disposal is something that most governments are trying to raise awareness about. In some cases, part of the work is contracted to private sector. Appropriate solid waste management strategies may vary for institutional, communal and domestic sources, depending on types and volumes of waste. Some of the major types of solid waste management are as follows. World perspectives and the cameroon case study master in environmental engineering and management this research is a compilation of data from all those mentioned and cited in the referenced section of this work. Explain the factors to be considered in evaluating onsite process techniques dec10dec12jan recovery of separated materials. Ako achere remy submitted at the universidade fernando pessoa in. Or and curi 1993 applied a mixed integer linear programming. Methods of solid waste disposal and management are as below.
Section d consisted of questions to assess the type of waste management practiced and the means of transporting waste from collection centers to final disposal site. Also, how the swedish solid waste management system is built up in order to find potential good examples. An analysis of solid waste generation and waste management. Waste collection is easiest in slumsslum dwellers are always the most neglected sector for waste collection. As long as liumans have been living in settled communities, solid waste, or garbage, has been an issue, and modern societies generate far more solid waste than early humans ever did.
They desire and understand the need for a clean environment and the costs of ill health. Majority of these cities are located in developing countries. Pdf good practices regarding solid waste management recycling. For the waste sector in south africa this means care must be given to raw material use, product design, resource efficiency, waste prevention, and minimization where avoidance is impossible. Chapter 7 solid waste management solid waste refers here to all nonliquid wastes. It is estimated that the amount of solid waste per capita is around 500 kilograms per year. Waste management the aim of sustainable waste management is to reduce waste formation and to use resources more efficiently and rationally, ensuring that the waste of one sector is used as a raw material in another sector. Introduction municipal solid waste disposal is a common problem in most third world countries. In addition, the proposed this chapter discusses issues surrounding solid waste management in developing countries and summarizes the main features of these issues. The illegal burning of solid waste causes air pollution and health problems.
Chapter 7 solid waste management european commission. Various methods are practiced to control solid waste pollution as composting, recycling, incineration, pyrolysis, disposal, landfills etc. Chapter 1 characteristics of solid waste problems in. To obtain a sample for analysis the waste is reduced to about. Handling also encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection. Due to economic development, industrialization and increasing population, problems related to the expanded consumption and depletion. They are the most willing to cooperate in improved waste management efforts. Separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source. It provides solutions for recycling items that do not belong to garbage or trash. Solid waste management is an integral part of the environmental domain of any region.
Solid waste management and recycling technology of japan. Healthy cities healthy islands document series, no 6. Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source. Methods of solid waste disposal and management the constructor. There are many waste types defined by modern systems of waste management, notably including. Liquid waste can be produced by all sectors of society, and includes sewage as well as wastewater from industrial processes such as food and agricultural processing, and manufacturing. Solid waste management swm has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The solid waste management consists of various types of wastes like. Chapter 5 technologies for hazardous waste management.
Examples include municipal solid waste household trashrefuse, hazardous. The highest rank in the hierarchy of integrated solid waste management is source reduction. Read this article to learn about types, sources, effects and methods of solid waste management. All these threaten the sustainability of the environment. Effects of improper disposal of solid wastespublic health and environmental effects. Methods of solid waste disposal and management methods of solid waste disposal and management are as below. In detail, concepts of waste management and major phases. Public awareness should be created especially at primary level. As shown in the diagram above, solid waste management generally includes a collection of waste, transporting waste, processing and recycling it, and finally disposal of waste. Solid waste management notes pdf swm notes pdf book starts with the topics waste collection, from low and mediumrise apartments, landfill technique, types of landfill, landfills for commingled msw. A camera was used to collect and record data on the prevailing state of waste management. Solid waste disposal must be managed systematically to ensure environmental best practices.
Cities generally have a variety of demographic profiles. If these quantities are added, the solid waste production rate reaches 45 kg per capita per day 100 lb. The result shows that excreta and other liquid and solid waste from households and. Though collection, treatment of solid wastes has always been the duty of civic authorities, the amount of solid wastes in our societies and cities are growing at an alarming rate. For sustainable management of solid waste, effective planning and development strategies about the quantity and categories of such wastes are of great importance. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount. Studies conducted by yongsi 6 show that exposure to hazardous waste in dumpsites can affect human health, children being the most vulnerable to these pollutants. The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 rs reduce, reuse and recycle, which classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimisation. The improvement of people and private sector through ngos could improve the efficiency of solid waste management. The las undertake the task of swm with their own staff, equipment and funds. In this study, the sources and components of solid waste were identified. However, the benefits of improved solid waste management are much more than. Pdf waste is a continually growing problem at global and regional as well as at local levels. The potential impact of improved waste management on reducing greenhouse gas emissions alone is estimated at 15%20% across the economy.
Liquid waste can be subdivided into other waste types based on the nature of the liquid waste and the risks it poses. Field observations and secondary data supplemented the data collected using questionnaires. Thus the most important processes are quantification and characterization of all the sustainable solid waste management systems according to senzige, et al. Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the control of. Solid waste management can be described as how solid waste can be changed and used as a valuable resource. Solid waste management on a campus in a developing country.1091 1573 1446 1498 332 605 123 895 144 1166 485 1360 280 437 1175 963 123 770 10 1387 480 15 997 847 1263 910 295 548 494